On May 19, the World Disease Day will be celebrated. SBCP (Brazilian Society of Coloproctology) reports an increase in the incidence of these diseases in Brazil, highlighting the results of the Maio Roxo competition.
According to the organization, intestinal diseases affect more than 5 million people worldwide and there is no cure, but early diagnosis helps to develop treatment to improve the quality of life of the people. affected by these diseases.
In Brazil, an increase in the number of patients seen in recent years, mainly Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
According to data from DataSUS, SBCP examined the incidence and prevalence of intestinal diseases in Brazil from 2012 to 2020. Data from 212,026 patients of both sexes were reported. identified, 140,705 of them had Crohn’s disease and 92,326 with colitis.
For physician Paulo Gustavo Kotze, member of the SBCP and author of the study, the incidence, that is, the registration of new patients, increased from 9.41 to 100,000. population, in 2012, to 9.57 of 100,000 inhabitants, 2020, the average annual change of 0.80%. The expansion, which is the equivalent of the events, went from 30.01 to 100,000 inhabitants to 100.13 to 100,000 people in the same period, an average difference of 14.87% per year. .
“In Brazil, the incidence of intestinal diseases has risen to 100 cases per 100,000 people in the civilian population, including the highest in the eastern region and In some developed countries, the prevalence rate can reach up to 1% of the population. The national average by 2020 is seven cases for ulcerative colitis and three Crohn’s disease for every 100,000 people, “said Kotze.
Causes and symptoms
The SBCP also states that intestinal infections are more prevalent in adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 40, with reasons related to genetics, immunity, environment, nutrition and changes of the gastrointestinal tract. Smoking is a risk factor for worsening of Crohn’s disease.
The symptoms of the two diseases are similar, but ulcerative colitis only affects the intestinal mucosa of the rectum and small intestine, called the large intestine. Crohn’s disease, on the other hand, can affect the entire organs, from the mouth to the rectum, resulting in more inflammation in the intestinal tract, intestines and perianal area, causing pain in all layers of the intestine.
Symptoms include diarrhea with blood, sputum or pus, associated with abdominal pain, fasting, loss of appetite, fatigue and weight loss. In more severe cases, the patient may have anemia, fever, malnutrition and abdominal pain. Between 15% and 30% of patients also have intestinal infections such as arthritis, skin or eye ulcers.
Diagnosis of chronic bowel disease is made by a specialist, following the examination of medical history and diagnostic, endoscopic, radiological and biopsies tests. According to Kotze, symptoms can be confused with more common diseases, such as kidney disease and diarrhea, “so a global evaluation of the patient is important”, he said.
Gastric or peptic ulcer: There is no cure, but proper treatment allows the control of the inflammatory process and its symptoms, as well as the elimination of the infection by antibiotics, corticosteroids and medications. injection. Diagnosis is complete without steroids, and vaccines and toxins can interfere. According to Kotze, early diagnosis is key to avoiding complications.
“Despite adequate treatment, the problems of improvement remain and a significant portion of patients still need various types of surgery. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment lies in in the ability to avoid complications and the consequences of surgery, “he added.
Another important factor for patients is following a proper diet. According to SBCP, a healthy diet can prevent the development of the disease and control its elimination.
Guidance should be followed by different groups of physicians and dieticians, because the type of diet recommended differs according to the stage and severity of the disease in each patient.